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제목 [아시아] Aikido

  • 조회수
    100
  • 작성일
    2020-12-22
  • 첨부

© Yoseikan 2013

Name Aikido
Alternative Names
Origin Japan
Main Techniques Mixed (Striking, grappling, weapon-based)
Weapons(if weapon-based) Multiple (sticks, staffs, swords)
Purpose of Practice Martial arts
Type of Origination Created
Degree of Sportification International
Yes (Year: )      No
General Information Aikido is a modern Japanese martial art that is often described as “a way of harmony and an art of peace” (Ueshiba 2008; Lefebvre 2016: 92). Aikido practitioners seek to defend themselves without causing injury to their partner. The art is thus conducted in the way that a person acts as an attacker and the other practising defensive techniques. The defender strives to neutralise the aggressor’s attack with throwing, locking, controlling, and pinning, as well as balance-breaking techniques. In particular, joint locks at anatomically weak body parts are effective in defeating a taller, stronger opponent (Kamata & Shimizu 1992).
History/Development Aikido was founded on the basis of daito-ryu aikijujutsu in the 1920s by Morihei Ueshiba who learnt daito-ryu aikijujutsu from its founder, Sokaku Takeda. Having practised different martial arts including judo, swordsmanship, and jujutsu styles, Morihei Ueshiba founded aikido with a view to transforming offensive, lethal techniques against an opponent into reciprocal physical interaction for each other which lead to their self-development (Lefebvre 2016).Influenced by its ancestry art daito-ryu aikijujutsu, there had been no contest between practitioners until Tomiki Kenji, a student of Ueshiba, developed a sport and competition style called Tomiki aikido in 1967. Ueshiba believed that conducting aikido as a sport is wrong and practitioners were told to take their daily practice seriously and regard it as a match.
Transmission
(Policies/institutions)
Aikido has been transmitted throughout the world and diversified in different variations with a range of interpretation. The International Aikido Federation founded in 1976 has now 56 member federations.
Relevant Organisations - International Aikido Federation
Additional Materials
References - Kamata, S. & Shimizu, K. (1992). Zen and Aikido. Tokyo: Aiki News.
- Lefebvre, A. (2016). “The Coordination of Moves in Aikido Interaction”, Gesture 15(2): 123-155.
- Ueshiba, K. (2008). A Life in Aikido: The Biography of Founder Morihei Ueshiba, translated by Kei Izawa and Mary Fuller. Tokyo: Kodansha International.