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제목 [아시아] Sumo

  • 조회수
    77
  • 작성일
    2020-12-22
  • 첨부

© Gusjer, 2010

Name
Sumo
Alternative Names
Origin
Japan
Main Techniques
Grappling
Weapons(if weapon-based)
N/A
Purpose of Practice
Martial Games
Type of Origination
Transmitted
Degree of Sportification
International
Yes (Year: )
     
No
General Information
Sumo is a Japanese national wrestling said to be one of the most popular spectator sports in Japan and abroad. Sumo wrestlers wear colourful mawashi (belly bands) with unique hair styles, presenting the sport’s traditionality (Web Japan, s.d.). In the bout, two wrestlers try to force the opponent to be out of the dohyo (arena) or to touch the ground with any part of the body except their feet. Before the match begins, the wrestlers take few minutes performing ritual gestures like tossing salt to cleanse the arena from evil spirits (Web Japan, s.d.). Bouts can last for few seconds or minutes. Both men and women are allowed to participate in sumo competitions, but currently sumo is predominantly practised by males.
History/Development
Sumo is deeply associated with Japanese religion, Shinto and can date back to 1,500 years. Early forms of sumo in the late 6th and 7th centuries used to be extremely lethal, with elements of boxing, judo, and wrestling (Geren II, s.d.:3). During the Kamadura period (1185-1334) under a military regime, there were numerous wars and sumo techniques like tripping and flooring were used for military training.

After the end of civil wars in the 17th century, samurai warriors came to be interested in practising sumo, but often ended up with violence to determine a winner. This was why ‘street sumo’ which gained popularity in this era was restricted to the formal, benefit matches only. The profits from these competitions should be utilised for religious purposes such as building a shrine or temple. The organisers of the matches had to receive permission from a temple in advance. This is when sumo was gaining more popularity, and thus, gradually becoming as a modern, institutionalised sport. Transition into a formal sport leads to the further development of sumo, spreading across Japan.
Transmission
(Policies/institutions)
The International Sumo Federation (s.d.) was established in 1992 and has played a leading role in making sumo as an international sport, now having 84 national federations. With its success in promoting and institutionalising sumo, the ISF gained full recognition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 2018. ISF is also a member of Global Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF).
Relevant Organisations
- International Sumo Federation
Additional Materials
References
- Web Japan. (s.d.). “Sumo: Traditional Ceremonial Beauty and Strength”. Web Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
- Geren II, S. M. (s.d.). “A Brief History of Sumo Wrestling”.